From Orpheus to Bob Dylan: the Story of "Words and Music"

Walter Bernhart

Resumo


Abstract: This paper tells a story of the relationship between “words and music” from the viewpoint of changing tendencies to either convergence or distance between the two forms of communication, depending on whether aesthetic dispositions and cultural conditions favour the merging or the drifting apart of both media. Thus, “fusionist” and “separatist” tendencies in the development of the arts are identified as manifested, in Western cultural history, by the impressive span of intermedial interaction extending from early mythical origins (Orpheus) to most recent manifestations (Bob Dylan). The focus is on the history of European musical theatre and the European song tradition. In the latter case, “interpretive” and “non-interpretive” songs are distinguished depending on whether the link between “words and music” is on the semantic or on the prosodic level. Contemporary pop songs, as represented by Dylan, are finally discussed in the context of the terminological framework presented and in view of the age-old tradition of singer-poets.

Keywords: word-image relations; contemporary pop songs; European tradition.

Resumo: O texto trata da história da relação entre “as palavras e a música” do ponto de vista das duas tendências: a convergência das duas formas de comunicação ou o distanciamento entre elas, segundo as disposições estéticas e condições culturais que favoreceram seja a fusão, seja o distanciamento dessas mídias. Assim, na história da cultura ocidental, as tendências “fusionistas” ou “separatistas” no desenvolvimento das artes são identificadas na extensão da interação intermidiática desde as origens míticas (Orfeu) até as manifestações mais recentes (Bob Dylan). O foco recai sobre a história do teatro musical europeu e a tradição da canção europeia. Nesta, as canções “interpretativas” e as “não interpretativas” se distinguem conforme o nível, semântico ou prosódico, da ligação entre “palavra e música”. Por fim, as canções populares contemporâneas, representadas por Dylan, são discutidas no contexto da estrutura terminológica apresentada e em vista da antiga tradição dos poetas-cantores.

Palavras-chave: relação palavra-imagem; canção popular contemporânea; tradição europeia.


Palavras-chave


word-image relations; contemporary pop songs; European tradition.

Texto completo:

PDF

Referências


ABBATE, Carolyn; PARKER, Roger. A History of Opera. New York, London: W.W. Norton, 2012.

BERGERT, Matthias. Symbiose von Text und Musik: Zu Bob Dylans “The Times They Are A-Changin’”. Literatur Kritik: Rezensionsforum, 2016. Available at: . Accessed on: 21 Mar. 2017.

BERNHART, Walter (1995). An Exegetic Composer: Benjamin Britten’s Journey of the Magi. Arbeiten aus Anglistik und Amerikanistik, Tübingen, v. 20, p. 123-134, 1995.

BERNHART, Walter. Cardillac, the Criminal Artist: A Challenge to Opera as a Musico-Literary Form. In: ______. Essays on Literature and Music (1985–2013) by Walter Bernhart. Ed. Werner Wolf. Leiden, Boston, MA: Brill, Rodopi, 2015. p. 171-179. DOI: https://doi.org/ 10.1163/9789004302747_012.

BERNHART, Walter. Essays on Literature and Music (1985–2013) by Walter Bernhart. Ed. Werner Wolf. Leiden, Boston, MA: Brill, Rodopi, 2015.

BERNHART, Walter. Setting a Poem: The Composer’s Choice For or Against Interpretation. Yearbook of Comparative and General Literature, Bloomington, IN, v. 37, p. 32-46, 1988.

BERNHART, Walter. Theorie und Praxis der Vertonung in den elisabethanischen Airs. In: PFISTER, Manfred (Ed.). Anglistentag 1984 Passau. Giessen: Vorträge, 1985. p. 245-260.

BERNHART, Walter. What Can Music Do to a Poem? New Intermedial Perspectives of Literary Studies. ZACH, Wolfgang; KENNEALLY, Michael (Ed.). Literatures in English: Priorities of Research. Tübingen: Stauffenberg, 2008. p. 41-46. (Studies in English and Comparative Literature, 21.)

BERNHART, Walter. Words and Music as Partners in Song: “Perfect Marriage” – “Uneasy Flirtation” – “Coercive Tension” – “Shared Indifference” – “Total Destruction”. ARVIDSON, Jens et al. (Ed.). Changing Borders: Contemporary Positions in Intermediality. Lund: Intermedia Studies Press, 2007. p. 85-94.

BOB Dylan’s “The Times They Are A-Changin’”. Jeremy Norman’s History of Information. [between 2004 and 2017]. Available at: http://www.historyofinformation.com/expanded.php?id=3164. Accesses on: 21 Mar. 2017.

CAMPION, Thomas. The Works of Thomas Campion: Complete Songs, Masques, and Treatises with a Selection of the Latin Verse. Ed. Walter R. Davis. London, New York: W.W. Norton, 1969.

CARTWRIGHT, Mark. Ancient Greek Music. In: ANCIENT History Enyclopedia. Horsham: Ancient History Enyclopedia, 2013. Available at: http://www.ancient.eu/Greek_Music/. Accessed on: 22 Mar. 2017.

DANIUS, Sara. Interview about the 2016 Nobel Prize in Literature. Nobelprize.org, Nobel Media AB, 2016. Video. 2 min. Available at: http://www.nobelprize.org/mediaplayer/index.php?id=2631. Accessed on: 30 Mar. 2017.

DETERING, Heinrich. Bob Dylan. Stuttgart: Philip Reclam, 2007. (Reclams Universal-Bibliothek).

DOWLAND, John. The First Book of Ayres: The English Lute-Songs. Ed. Edmund H. Fellowes, Thurston Dart. London, New York: Stainer & Bell, 1965. Series I, 1-2.

DYLAN, Bob. Bob Dylan ‒ Banquet Speech. Nobelprize.org, Nobel Media AB, 10 Dec. 2016. Video. 8 min. Available at: https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/2016/dylan-speech.html. Accessed on: 20 Feb. 2017.

DYLAN, Bob. Nobel Lecture. Nobelprize.org, Nobel Media AB, 5 une 2017. Available at: http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/2016/dylan-lecture.html?utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=twitter_tweet#.WTVp3Raw5QM.twitter. Accessed on: 9 June 2017.

DYLAN, Bob. The Times They Are A-Changin’. Bob Dylan. c1963. Available at: https://bobdylan.com/songs/times-they-are-changin/. Accessed on: 21 Mar. 2017.

ENGDAHL, Horace. Award Ceremony Speech. Nobelprize.org, Nobel Media AB, Dec. 2016. Available at: http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/2016/presentation-speech.html. Accessed on: 21 Mar. 2017.

GESAMTKUNSTWERK. In: WIKIPEDIA: The Free Encyclopedia. [s.n.t]. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gesamtkunstwerk. Accessed on: 5 Apr. 2017.

LESSING, Gotthold Ephrai. Laokoon oder über die Grenzen der Malerei und Poesie. Ed. Karl Eibl et al. München: Carl Hanser, 1974. Bd. 6.

MORLEY, Thomas. A Plaine and Easie Introdvction to Practicall Mvsicke: The English Experience 207. Amsterdam, New York: Theatrum Orbis, 1597/1969.

MÜLLER, Lothar. Literaturnobelpreis: Warum Dylan bei seiner Nobelpreisrede singen müsste. Süddeutsche Zeitung, München, 13 Oct. 2016. Available at: http://www.sueddeutsche.de/thema/Bob_Dylan. Accessed on: 17 Oct. 2016.

NORTH, Anna. Why Bob Dylan Shouldn’t Have Gotten a Nobel. The New York Times, New York, 13 Oct. 2016. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/13/opinion/why-bob-dylan-shouldnt-have-gotten-a-nobel.html?_r=0. Accessed on: 17 Oct. 2016.

ORPHEUS. In: WIKIPEDIA: die freie Enzyklopädie. [s.n.t.]. Available at: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orpheus. Accessed on: 23 Feb. 2017.

ORPHEUS. In: WIKIPEDIA: The Free Encyclopedia. [s.n.t.]. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orpheus. Accessed on: 23 Feb. 2017.

POUND, Ezra. Literary Essays. Ed. T.S. Eliot. London: Faber, 1974.

SCHREIBER, Ulrich. Opernführer für Fortgeschrittene: Die Geschichte des Musiktheaters. Das 19. Jahrhundert. Kassel, Basel: Bärenreiter, 1991.

WAGNER, Richard (1852, online). Oper und Drama. Leipzig: [s.n.], 1852. Available at: http://gutenberg.spiegel.de/buch/oper-und-drama-843/. Accessed on. 12 June 2017.

WEISS, Piero. Opera: A History in Documents. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

WICKE, Peter. The Times They Are A-Changin’ (Bob Dylan). In: SONGLEXIKON: Encyclopedia of songs. Ed. Michael Fischer, Fernand Hörner, Christofer Jost. [S.l.: s.n.], 2014. Available at: http://www.songlexikon.de/songs/timestheyaredylan. Accessed on: 21 Mar. 2017.

WIELE, Jan. Bob Dylans Nobelpreisrede: Im Kreisverkehr. Frankfurter Allgemeine, Frankfurt, 7 Juni 2017. Feuilleton. Available at: http://www.faz.net/aktuell/feuilleton/pop/bob-dylans-nobelpreisrede-15049551.html. Accessed on: 9 June 2017.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17851/2317-2096.27.2.277-301

Apontamentos

  • Não há apontamentos.


Direitos autorais 2017 Walter Bernhart



Aletria: Revista de Estudos de Literatura
ISSN 1679-3749 (impressa) / ISSN 2317-2096 (eletrônica)

Licença Creative Commons
Esta obra está licenciada com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição 4.0 Internacional.