Nação, raça e identidade em Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral, de Phillis Wheatley / Nation, Race and Identity in Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral, by Phillis Wheatley

Jose de Paiva dos Santos

Resumo


Resumo: Este artigo discute alguns poemas da escritora afro-americana Phillis Wheatley, publicados em Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral, no contexto dos debates em pauta no século XVIII acerca da humanidade dos negros. O argumento principal é que, embora sutil em suas observações devido a sua posição social frágil, Wheatley faz uso da poesia para confrontar interpretações racistas de textos bíblicos, bem como de teorias pseudocientíficas que visavam caracterizar o sujeito negro como intelectualmente e culturalmente inferior ao euro-americano. A análise demonstra que Wheatley se posiciona com autoridade diante dessas afirmações, tornando-se assim precursora de movimentos de vindicação da cultura negra que ganhariam proeminência mais tarde em narrativas autobiográficas de escravos, sermões, canções folclóricas e ensaios abolicionistas. As reflexões sobre raça, religião, nação e cidadania que norteiam a análise se baseiam, principalmente, em teorizações desenvolvidas por Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Eddie S. Glaude, Jr. e Joanna Brooks.

Palavras-chave: Wheatley; vindicação; Iluminismo; Protestantismo; Cristianismo.

Abstract: This article examines a few poems by the African-American writer Phillis Wheatley, published in Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral, against the backdrop of the debates on the humanity of black people that took place in the eighteenth century. The main argument is that, although subtle in her remarks due to her fragile social position, Wheatley makes use of her poetic voice to challenge racist interpretations of the biblical text, as well as pseudoscientific theories which categorized black individuals as intellectually and culturally inferior compared to Euro-Americans. This paper demonstrates that Wheatley positions herself firmly against such charges, thereby becoming the precursor of black vindication movements that would gain prominence later in slave narratives, sermons, folk songs, and pro-abolition essays. The considerations on race, religion, nation and citizenship that guide the analysis benefit from theorizations by Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Eddie S. Glaude, Jr. and Joanna Brooks.

Keywords: Wheatley, vindication, Enlightenment, Protestantism, Christianity.


Palavras-chave


Wheatley; vindicação; Iluminismo; Protestantismo; Cristianismo; vindication, Enlightenment, Protestantism, Christianity.

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Referências


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17851/2317-2096.28.3.83-102

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Direitos autorais 2018 Jose de Paiva dos Santos

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Aletria: Revista de Estudos de Literatura
ISSN 1679-3749 (impressa) / ISSN 2317-2096 (eletrônica)

Licença Creative Commons
Esta obra está licenciada com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição 4.0 Internacional.