Conhecimento fonológico em crianças com desenvolvimento típico

Suzana do Couto Mendes, Christina Abreu Gomes, Gastão Coelho Gomes

Abstract


Resumo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a emergência da gramática fonológica em crianças com desenvolvimento típico, apoiado na hipótese dos Modelos Baseados no Uso, segundo a qual o conhecimento fonológico concernente às relações fonotáticas e templates lexicais emerge a partir das formas das palavras armazenadas no léxico. Assim, o esperado é que quanto maior o léxico mais estruturas farão parte da gramática fonológica abstraída pelo falante e mais robustez será conferida às representações. Um teste de repetição de não-palavras, com o propósito de avaliar o conhecimento fonológico do falante através da acurácia de repetição, e o teste de vocabulário receptivo Peabody, utilizado para mensurar o tamanho do léxico dos participantes, foram aplicados a 66 crianças com desenvolvimento típico de três faixas etárias diferentes (5, 7 e 9-12 anos). Os resultados encontrados indicaram uma relação entre o efeito do tamanho e a frequência dos constituintes das não-palavras, a idade das crianças e do tamanho do léxico e o grau de acurácia de repetição. Escores mais altos de acurácia foram obtidos em itens lexicais com duas e três sílabas, constituídos de sílabas com alta frequência de ocorrência e em crianças com léxico maior, o que ratifica a hipótese de que o conhecimento fonológico se desenvolve em função da aquisição lexical.

Palavras-chave: Modelos Baseados no Uso; conhecimento fonológico; desenvolvimento típico.

Abstract: This study aimed to analyze the emergence of the phonological grammar in children with typical development, based on the Usagebased Models’ hypothesis by which phonological knowledge regarding phonotactics and lexical templates emerge from the word forms stored in the lexicon. Hence, it is expected that the higher the lexicon more structures will be part of the speaker’s abstracted phonological grammar and robustness will be given to representations. A nonword repetition test, aiming to assess the phonological knowledge of the speaker by the degree of accuracy in repetition, and the receptive vocabulary test Peabody, used to measure the lexicon size of the participants, were applied to 66 children with typical development distributed in three different age groups (5 years, 7 years and 9-12 years). The results indicate a relationship between the size and the frequency of the constituents of the nonwords as well as children’s age and size of the lexicon and the degree of accuracy in nonword’s repetition. Higher scores on accuracy were obtained in lexical items with two and three syllables, made up of high-frequent syllables and by children with a higher lexicon, which ratifies the hypothesis according to which phonological knowledge develops depending on the acquisition of the lexicon.

Keywords: Usage-Based Models; phonological knowledge; typical development.


Keywords


Usage-Based Models; phonological knowledge; typical development.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17851/2237-2083.25.4.1841-1869

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