Referência genérica em SNs singulares: uma abordagem cognitivista experimental / Generic reference in singular NPs: a cognitive grammar experimental approach

Diogo Pinheiro, Lilian Ferrari, Maria Clara Pimenta, Joabe de Souza, Márcia Viegas, Wanderson Lucas Ohenes

Abstract


Resumo: Este artigo se debruça sobre dois padrões de SNs singulares genéricos do português brasileiro – com artigo definido e com determinante zero – com um objetivo duplo: de um lado, caracterizar as estruturas conceptuais associadas a cada um desses padrões; de outro, testar experimentalmente a validade dessa caracterização. À luz da Gramática Cognitiva (LANGACKER, 1987, 1991, 2009, 2013), assumimos que ambos os padrões designam um tipo (em oposição a uma instância particular) inserido em um domínio conceitual abstrato (em oposição ao espaço físico). Com base nisso, sugerimos que (i) o esquema com artigo pressupõe a disponibilidade prévia do domínio de instanciação e evoca a conceitualização implícita de tipos não perfilados, ao passo que (ii) o esquema com determinante zero não pressupõe acesso prévio ao domínio de instanciação e não faculta a conceitualização de tipos não perfilados. Para testar essas hipóteses, foi realizado um experimento de julgamento de aceitabilidade no qual trinta estudantes de graduação avaliaram sentenças contendo SNs singulares genéricos definidos em duas condições: com sequência contrastiva (condição plenamente compatível com a hipótese (i)) e sem sequência contrastiva (condição menos compatível com a hipótese (i)). Os resultados revelaram a existência de diferença significativa na distribuição dos graus de aceitabilidade entre as duas condições (p = .043), fornecendo evidências em favor da proposta desenvolvida aqui.

Palavras-chave: Gramática Cognitiva; abordagem experimental; sintagma nominal genérico; português brasileiro.

Abstract: This paper investigates generic singular NPs in Brazilian Portuguese, comparing patterns containing a definite article with those that display a zero determiner. The goal is twofold: to characterize the conceptual structures associated with these predications and to experimentally validate this characterization. Within the framework of Cognitive Grammar (LANGACKER, 1987, 1991, 2009, 2013), we assume that both syntactic patterns designate a type (as opposed to a particular instance) which inhabits an abstract conceptual domain (as opposed to physical space). Given this assumption, we argue that: (i) the definite schema implies the previous availability of the domain of instantiation and implicitly conjures up unprofiled types, whereas (ii) the zero determiner schema does not presuppose previous access to the domain of instantiation and does not evoke unprofiled types. To test these hypotheses, an acceptability judgement test was carried out where 30 undergraduate students rated sentences containing definite generic NPs in two conditions: with a contrastive sequence (fully compatible with hypothesis (i)) and without a contrastive sequence (less compatible with hypothesis (i)). The results revealed the existence of a significant difference in the distribution of acceptability ratings in each condition (p = .043), thus providing evidence for the conceptual approach advanced here.

Keywords: Cognitive Grammar; experimental approach; generic noun phrase; Brazilian Portuguese.


Keywords


Cognitive Grammar; experimental approach; generic noun phrase; Brazilian Portuguese.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17851/2237-2083.25.3.1463-1500

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