O Zhuāngzǐ e as palavras-cálice: uma visão de linguagem pragmática radical na China do século IV aC

Cristiano Mahaut Barros Barreto

Abstract


Resumo: No presente artigo, analiso a visão de linguagem do clássico chinês taoísta Zhuāngzǐ 莊子 (c. século V–III a.C.), com foco no capítulo 27, onde seu autor sugere, por meio da tríade metalinguística das palavras convidadas, palavras repetidas e palavras-cálice, uma visão marcadamente singular na tradição chinesa, ainda pouco explorada pela sinologia e na história das ideias linguísticas (HIL). Em tradução comentada inédita para o português do início do capítulo 27 do Zhuāngzǐ, proponho que a leitura de suas linhas revele uma linguagem poderosa e libertária e, ao mesmo tempo, eivada pela sua própria propensão à imposição de categorias e ontologias. O Zhuāngzǐ sugere uma abordagem profundamente inovadora, com a qual traço aqui paralelos elucidativos e também inéditos, até onde tenho conhecimento, com a abordagem pragmática do conceito de linguagem como forma de vida de Wittgenstein. Apoiando-me na visão teórica historicista moderada de Auroux e no perspectivismo metalinguístico associado a Harris e Taylor, identifico afinidades que transcendem tempo e espaço e, ao mesmo tempo, recusamse a ceder ao reducionismo ou a hierarquias paralisantes. Ao longo do eixo de uma filosofia comparativa Leste/Oeste, sugiro que o termo final da tríade zhuangziana, palavras-cálice, represente o poder renovador e libertador da linguagem cujos traços entrevemos na linguagem ordinária de Wittgenstein. Finalmente, concluo com um convite para que se restaure a posição merecida do Zhuāngzǐ na HIL chinesa, ressaltando o papel fundamental do seu capítulo 27 nessa história.

Palavras-chave: Zhuāngzǐ; Wittgenstein; metalinguagem; palavrascálice.

Abstract: In this article, I analyze the language view of the Chinese Taoist classic Zhuāngzǐ 莊子 (c. 5th-3rd century BC), focusing on Chapter 27, in which the author suggests, through the metalinguistic triad of invited words, repeated words and goblet words, a remarkably unique view within the Chinese tradition, still largely unexplored by sinologists and authors working on the History of Language Ideas (HLI). In a previously unpublished translation to the Portuguese of the beginning of Chapter 27 from the Zhuāngzǐ, I propose that the text supports a powerful and libertarian language that at the same time is plagued by its own propensity to impose categories and ontologies. The Zhuāngzǐ suggests a profoundly innovative approach, with which I draw illuminating and not yet published – as far as I am aware – parallels with the pragmatic approach of Wittgenstein’s language as a form of life. Relying on Auroux’s theoretical moderate historicist vision and the metalinguistic perspectivism associated with Harris and Taylor, I identify affinities that transcend time and space and at the same time refuse to yield to reductionism or to paralyzing hierarchies. Along the axis of an East/West comparative philosophy, I suggest that the final term of the Zhuangzian triad, goblet words, represents the renovating and liberating power of a language in which we see signs of Wittgenstein’s ordinary language. Finally, I conclude with an invitation to restore the welldeserved prominence of the Zhuāngzǐ in the Chinese HLI, with particular attention to the key role of its Chapter 27.

Keywords: Zhuāngzǐ; Wittgenstein; metalanguage; goblet words.


Keywords


Zhuāngzǐ; Wittgenstein; metalanguage; goblet words.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17851/2237-2083.26.2.905-943

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