FormantPro as a Tool for Speech Analysis and Segmentation / FormantPro como uma ferramenta para a análise e segmentação da fala

Yi Xu, Hong Gao

Abstract


Abstract: This paper introduces FormantPro, a Praat-based tool for large-scale, systematic analysis of formant movements, especially for experimental data. The program generates a rich set of output metrics, including continuous contours like time-normalized formant trajectories and formant velocity profiles suitable for direct graphical comparisons, and discrete measurements suitable for statistical analysis. It also allows users to generate mean trajectories and discrete measurements averaged across repetitions and speakers. As an illustration of its usage, data from a preliminary study of syllable segmentation in Mandarin were presented. The alignment of continuous formant trajectories enabled by FormantPro provides evidence that the temporal scopes of consonants and vowels are very different from those based on conventional views, and that acoustic and articulatory boundaries of segments are fundamentally similar.

Keywords: FormantPro; formant trajectories; syllable segmentation.

Resumo: Este artigo apresenta o FormantPro, uma ferramenta que roda no Praat, dedicada à análise sistemática e em larga escala dos movimentos de formantes, especialmente para dados de natureza experimental. O programa gera um rico conjunto de métricas de saída, incluindo contornos contínuos, como as trajetórias de formantes normalizadas temporalmente e perfis de velocidade de formantes adequados para comparações gráficas diretas, bem como medidas discretas adequadas para a análise estatística. O programa também permite aos usuários gerar médias de trajetórias e medidas discretas calculadas a partir das médias de repetições e de falantes. Como ilustração da sua usabilidade, dados preliminares de um estudo sobre segmentação silábica em mandarim foram apresentados. O alinhamento de trajetórias contínuas de formantes geradas pelo FormantPro oferecem evidência de que os escopos temporais de consoantes e vogais são muito diferentes daqueles baseados em visões convencionais, e de que as fronteiras acústicas e articulatórias dos segmentos são fundamentalmente semelhantes.

Palavras-chave: FormantPro; trajetórias dos formantes; segmentação silábica


Keywords


FormantPro; formant trajectories; syllable segmentation.

Full Text:

PDF

References


ARVANITI, A.; LADD, D. R.; MENNEN, I. Stability of tonal alignment: the case of Greek prenuclear accents. Journal of Phonetics, Elsevier, v. 36, p. 3-25, 1998.

BERKSON, K.; DAVIS, S.; STRICKLER, A. What does incipient/ay/-raising look like?: A response to Josef Fruehwald. Language, Washington, v. 93, n. 3, p. e181-e191, 2017.

BOERSMA, P. Praat, a system for doing phonetics by computer. Glot International, Blackwell Publishing, v. 5, n. 9/10, p. 341-345, 2001.

BOYCE, S. E.; KRAKOW, R. A.; BELL-BERTI, F. Phonological under specification and speech motor organization. Phonology, Elsevier, v. 8, p. 210-236, 1991.

BROWMAN, C. P.; GOLDSTEIN, L. Articulatory phonology: An overview. Phonetica, International Society of Phonetic Sciences, v. 49, p. 155-180, 1992. Doi: 10.1159/000261913

CHENG, C.; XU, Y. Articulatory limit and extreme segmental reduction in Taiwan Mandarin. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, v. 134, n. 6, p. 4481—4495, 2013.

FOWLER, C. A.; SALTZMAN, E. Coordination and coarticulation in speech production. Language and Speech, Sage Journals, v. 36, n. 2-3, p. 171-195, 1993.

GAO, H.; XU, Y. Coarticulation as an epiphenomenon of syllable-synchronized target approximation—Evidence from F0-aligned formant trajectories in Mandarin. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Acoustical Society of America, v. 135, Pt. 2, 2013.

GELFER, C. E.; BELL-BERTI, F.; HARRIS, K. S. Determining the extent of coarticulation: effects of experimental design. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Acoustical Society of America, v. 86, n. 6, p. 2443-2445, 1989.

LADD, D. R.; FAULKNER, D.; FAULKNER, H.; SCHEPMAN, A. Constant “segmental anchoring” of F0 movements under changes in speech rate. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Acoustical Society of America, v. 106, p. 1543-1554, 1999.

LEE, A.; MOK, P. Acquisition of Japanese quantity contrasts by L1 Cantonese speakers. Second Language Research, Hong Kong, 2017. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0267658317739056

LINDBLOM, B.; SUSSMAN, H. M. Dissecting coarticulation: How locus equations happen. Journal of Phonetics, Elsevier, v. 40, n. 1, p. 1-19, 2012.

LIU, H.; LIANG, J. Vowels as acoustic cues for sub-dialect identification in Chinese. In: INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM CHINESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE PROCESSING (ISCSLP), 10th., Tianjin, China, 2016. Proceedings… Tianjin, China: IEEE, 2016. p. 1-5.

ÖHMAN, S. E. G. Coarticulation in VCV utterances: Spectrographic measurements. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Acoustical Society of America, v. 39, p. 151-168, 1966.

SALTZMAN, E. L.; MUNHALL, K. G. A dynamical approach to gestural patterning in speech production. Ecological Psychology, Francis & Taylor Online, v. 1, p. 333-382, 1989.

SCHEPMAN, A.; LICKLEY, R.; LADD, D. R. Effects of vowel length and “right context” on the alignment of Dutch nuclear accents. Journal of Phonetics, Elsevier, v. 34, p. 1-28, 2006.

STEVENS, K. N. Acoustic Phonetics. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1998.

STEVENS, K. N. Toward a model for lexical access based on acoustic landmarks and distinctive features. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Acoustical Society of America, v. 111, p. 1872-1891, 2002.

TURK, A.; NAKAI, S.; SUGAHARA, M. Acoustic Segment Durations in Prosodic Research: A Practical Guide. In: SUDHOFF, S.; LENERTOVÁ, D.; MEYER, R. et al. Methods in Empirical Prosody Research. Berlin; New York: De Gruyter, 2006. p. 1-28.

XU, Y. Consistency of tone-syllable alignment across different syllable structures and speaking rates. Phonetica, Bankstown, Australia, v. 55, p. 179-203, 1998.

XU, Y. Effects of tone and focus on the formation and alignment of F0 contours. Journal of Phonetics, Elsevier, v. 27, p. 55-105, 1999.

XU, Y. ProsodyPro — A tool for large-scale systematic prosody analysis. In: TOOLS AND RESOURCES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF SPEECH PROSODY (TRASP 2013), Aix-en-Provence, France, 2013. Proceedings… Aix-en-Provence: [s.n.], 2013. p. 7-10.

XU, Y. How often is maximum speed of articulation approached in speech? Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Acoustical Society of America, v. 121, Pt. 2, p. 3199-3140, 2007.

XU, Y.; LIU, F. Determining the temporal interval of segments with the help of F0 contours. Journal of Phonetics, Acoustical Society of America, v. 35, p. 398-420, 2007.

XU, Y.; WANG, Q. E. Pitch targets and their realization: Evidence from Mandarin Chinese. Speech Communication, Elsevier, v. 33, p. 319-337, 2001.

XU, Y.; XU, C. X. Phonetic realization of focus in English declarative intonation. Journal of Phonetics, Elsevier, v. 33, p. 159-197, 2005.

ZUE, V.; SENEFT, S.; GLASS, J. Speech database development at MIT: TIMIT and beyond. Speech Communication, v. 9, n. 3, p. 1-356, 1990.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17851/2237-2083.26.4.1435-1454

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
';



Copyright (c) 2018 Yi Xu, Hong Gao

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

e - ISSN 2237-2083 

License

Licensed through  Creative Commons Atribuição 4.0 Internacional    

Image result for fapemig

Grant #APL-00427-17 (2018-2019)